如何为您的定量研究写好「研究方法」部分

27 April 2020

Quick Takeaways:

  • et al.' means 'and others'.
  • Use 'et al.' to cite works with three or more authors.
  • The presentation (et al., et al., or rarely et al) depends on the style guide or journal guidelines

The English language has a rich history of borrowing words from other languages, especially from Latin. Latin abbreviations such as ‘a.m.’, ‘p.m.’ and ‘CV’ have become part of our everyday vocabulary. Such abbreviations are also frequently used in academic writing, from the ‘Ph.D.’ in the affiliation section to the ‘i.e.’, ‘e.g.’, ‘et al.’, and ‘QED’ in the rest of the paper.

This guide explains when and how to correctly use ‘et al.’ in a research paper.

在任何定量研究中,您需要在为研究问题 (Research question)及研究假设 (Hypothesis)下定义后进一步描述您的研究方法 (Methodology)。我们将会在这一期网志讨论如何为您的定量研究写好「研究方法」部分。。

为什么需要有一个清楚的「研究方法」部分?

一个清楚有效的「研究方法」部分可以准确描述您如何执行您的研究,以及让其他研究人员可以:

  • 评估您的研究及
  • 复制延伸您的研究

内容结构和资料的逻辑次序

您的「研究方法」部分应该要为该研究中各项目的逻辑次序提供一个清楚而简洁的描述。

给论文作者的小贴士:

  • 运用分段小节 (Sub-sections)去组织资料
  • 在每一个分段小节开始时先交代最重要的资料

您的「研究方法」部分的内容结构会因应不同研究类型而有所不同,但一般来说,您都需要将下面所提及的资料包括在内(您可以跟从相似的顺序,但当然并非永远绝对):

  1. 研究设计的概观
  2. 确认该研究是否已获人类或动物研究伦理委员会批准的声明: 您可能还需要在此提及您的研究设计中所包含的任何特定道德考虑因素
  3. 您研究的设置及其于何时进行
  4. 有关如何为研究拣选人类参与者或动物主体的描述 (如相关)
  5. 纳入标准 (Inclusion Criteria) 或排除标准 (Exclusion Criteria)
  6. 解释是否有采用对照组及如何选定该对照组
  7. 使用的研究材料及器材的描述
  8. 研究程序或草案计划的描述
  9. 对什么变量 (variables)有被量度及数据如何被纪录的描述
  10. 您的分析策略的描述,包括数据准备工作、统计检定和相关软件应用

给论文作者的小贴士:

  • 您需要在研究草案计划中包括足够的资料以让读者在有需要时可以评估或复制该研究
  • 如在您的研究中有多于一个实验,或包含不止一个阶段,您需要按时间顺序写出它们
  • 您可考虑运用流程图或图表去将复杂的研究视像化
  • 不要忘记为一些如以前曾在其他甚至您自己的论文中被汇报过的问卷调查或技术等研究材料补充参考资料

常用于「研究方法」部分的动词时态

撰写「研究方法」部分的目的是要描述您在研究中到底做了些什么,所以一般我们都会用过去时 (Simple Past Tense)及被动语态 (Passive Voice)去写。

例如:

“This was an experimental study”
“Data were collected using an Internet questionnaire”
“Participants were tested in a laboratory at the university”

但是,当要形容一个常用技术或方法,或陈述一个已知事实时,很多时候我们会比较用到现在时 (Present Tense)

例如:

“It is important to select the most appropriate parameters for optimisation”
“Generally, the raw signal is saved in a single file to simplify the averaging process”
“The 15-item questionnaire measures attitudes towards mental health”

您需要避免的事项

我们已经讨论过您需要在写「研究方法」部分时包括什么资料及应注意的地方。但以下是我们的经验之谈,分享一些您要避免的细节:

  • 将研究方法或程序写成操作指南清单
  • 过于深入的资料描述: 您要衡量什么资料是相关及什么是多余的,例如:
    • 提及当中人类参与者是否因为什么激励措施才参加该研究是重要的,但他们出席是否有获提供茶点就不相关了 (除非有否享用茶点与该研究有关)
    • 提及研究中的动物主体被喂食了什么及喂食时间间距是重要的,但至于由谁去喂饲它们就不会是重点了
  • 提供一些可以在其他地方找到的常见方法的深入描述

QUICK ASIDE

Wondering why some abbreviations such as ‘et al.’ and ‘e.g.’ use periods, whereas others such as CV and AD don’t? Periods are typically used if the abbreviations include lowercase or mixed-case letters. They’re usually not used with abbreviations containing only uppercase letters.

Unusual Scenarios

Our latest online workshop built on the success of face-to-face workshops we developed specifically for local universities. Over 30 faculty members joined the session, presented by our Chief Operating Officer, Mr Nick Case, to learn from our case studies on editing research proposals.

The response to our workshop, which included a constructive and insightful Q&A session, was very positive.Drawing on our extensive experience working with hundreds of Hong Kong researchers targeting the GRF and ECS every year, we used examples of poor and subsequently improved proposals to show the attendees how they can make their applications stand out. The response to our workshop, which included a constructive and insightful Q&A session, was very positive.Drawing on our extensive experience working with hundreds of Hong Kong researchers targeting the GRF and ECS every year, we used examples of poor and subsequently improved proposals to show the attendees how they can make their applications stand out. The response to our workshop, which included a constructive and insightful Q&A session, was very positive.Drawing on our extensive experience working with hundreds of Hong Kong researchers targeting the GRF and ECS every year, we used examples of poor and subsequently improved proposals to show the attendees how they can make their applications stand out.

QUICK ASIDE

Wondering why some abbreviations such as ‘et al.’ and ‘e.g.’ use periods, whereas others such as CV and AD don’t? Periods are typically used if the abbreviations include lowercase or mixed-case letters. They’re usually not used with abbreviations containing only uppercase letters.

Author Resources

Check out AsiaEdit’s professional research grant proposal editing service.
Read more about our training services covering all aspects of academic writing tailored for local institutions.

More resources on research grant proposal writing: On-demand Webinars
Preparing an effective research proposal – Your guide to successful funding application
Preparing an effective research proposal – Your guide to successful funding application (Part 2)

作者背景

Dr Rachel Baron

联合总编及执行编辑 (社会科学)

Rachel于2001年刚在University of Exeter 取得博士学位的同时,以自由编辑的身份首次加入我们。在担任博士后研究人员数年之后,她专注于大学教授心理学,并于2010年回到AsiaEdit,并专注于学术编辑专业。她于2018年升任助理总编辑,并于2020年继而成为我们的联合主编。由于无法完全离开学术界,她还在意大利的一所英语大学教授心理学。

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