运用IMRAD辅助记忆法协助撰写论文摘要

10 May 2019

Quick Takeaways:

  • et al.' means 'and others'.
  • Use 'et al.' to cite works with three or more authors.
  • The presentation (et al., et al., or rarely et al) depends on the style guide or journal guidelines

The English language has a rich history of borrowing words from other languages, especially from Latin. Latin abbreviations such as ‘a.m.’, ‘p.m.’ and ‘CV’ have become part of our everyday vocabulary. Such abbreviations are also frequently used in academic writing, from the ‘Ph.D.’ in the affiliation section to the ‘i.e.’, ‘e.g.’, ‘et al.’, and ‘QED’ in the rest of the paper.

This guide explains when and how to correctly use ‘et al.’ in a research paper.

为什麽摘要 (Abstract) 在论文写作中如此重要?

试想像一下你平常是怎样把适合自己需要的文章找出来呢? 你大概都只会很快地读一读摘要,再根据摘要的吸引程度,相关性及是否表达清晰去决定继续阅读内文与否。

有效的论文摘要是抓住读者注意力的最有力工具,因此它应该要包含所有能让读者自行判断该研究的重要性及相关性的资料。

论文摘要需要包括些什麽?

由於论文摘要在学术世界中扮演著非常关键的角色,所以确保与该研究最相关的资料能以最有效的方式呈现在摘要中是极其重要。

IMRAD 辅助记忆法可助你更易聚焦到论文摘要的4个主要组成部分:

你可以根据上面的IMRAD辅助记忆法去组织你的论文摘要结构,当然你亦可以选用最简单的单段落结构,但是无论使用哪种方式,你的摘要都必须在字数上限内包含以下的资料,一般论文摘要的字数上限建议为100至250字左右。

你的论文摘要中不同部分需要包含的资料

我们现在个别讨论摘要中各主要组成部分。

1. Introduction 引言

你应该尝试用不多於三句句子扼要地列出你的研究项目想要应对或解决的问题。你要包括以下各重点﹕

2. Method 研究方法

你需要简单形容如何进行你的研究。一个好的研究方法部分应该要包含以下资料﹕

3. Results 研究结果

你并不需要在此部分包括你收集到的所有研究结果资料,而是只包括其中最重要及最相关的结果即可。紧记在摘要中提及的研究结果应该要与你之前在引言所提出的研究问题有关联及能够帮助解答该研究问题。

4. Discussion 讨论

你要在摘要的最后一部分清楚列出你的研究发现所可能带出的影响。或者先问一问自己以下的问题会有帮助﹕

最后,紧记要为你的论文摘要加上一个强而有力的总结!

一些需要避免的常见陋习

除了跟从上面的建议外,了解一下一些常见的摘要写作陋习都有一定帮助。

记得要避免

最后,我们的一个非常实用的建议﹕仔细检查,或者找其他人或专业编辑给你提供意见及修改,直至不能更完美为止!

QUICK ASIDE

Wondering why some abbreviations such as ‘et al.’ and ‘e.g.’ use periods, whereas others such as CV and AD don’t? Periods are typically used if the abbreviations include lowercase or mixed-case letters. They’re usually not used with abbreviations containing only uppercase letters.

Unusual Scenarios

Our latest online workshop built on the success of face-to-face workshops we developed specifically for local universities. Over 30 faculty members joined the session, presented by our Chief Operating Officer, Mr Nick Case, to learn from our case studies on editing research proposals.

The response to our workshop, which included a constructive and insightful Q&A session, was very positive.Drawing on our extensive experience working with hundreds of Hong Kong researchers targeting the GRF and ECS every year, we used examples of poor and subsequently improved proposals to show the attendees how they can make their applications stand out. The response to our workshop, which included a constructive and insightful Q&A session, was very positive.Drawing on our extensive experience working with hundreds of Hong Kong researchers targeting the GRF and ECS every year, we used examples of poor and subsequently improved proposals to show the attendees how they can make their applications stand out. The response to our workshop, which included a constructive and insightful Q&A session, was very positive.Drawing on our extensive experience working with hundreds of Hong Kong researchers targeting the GRF and ECS every year, we used examples of poor and subsequently improved proposals to show the attendees how they can make their applications stand out.

QUICK ASIDE

Wondering why some abbreviations such as ‘et al.’ and ‘e.g.’ use periods, whereas others such as CV and AD don’t? Periods are typically used if the abbreviations include lowercase or mixed-case letters. They’re usually not used with abbreviations containing only uppercase letters.

Author Resources

Check out AsiaEdit’s professional research grant proposal editing service.
Read more about our training services covering all aspects of academic writing tailored for local institutions.

More resources on research grant proposal writing: On-demand Webinars
Preparing an effective research proposal – Your guide to successful funding application
Preparing an effective research proposal – Your guide to successful funding application (Part 2)

作者背景

Dr Rachel Baron

联合总编及执行编辑 (社会科学)

Rachel于2001年刚在University of Exeter 取得博士学位的同时,以自由编辑的身份首次加入我们。在担任博士后研究人员数年之后,她专注于大学教授心理学,并于2010年回到AsiaEdit,并专注于学术编辑专业。她于2018年升任助理总编辑,并于2020年继而成为我们的联合主编。由于无法完全离开学术界,她还在意大利的一所英语大学教授心理学。

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