如何组织段落大纲

16 September 2019

Quick Takeaways:

  • et al.' means 'and others'.
  • Use 'et al.' to cite works with three or more authors.
  • The presentation (et al., et al., or rarely et al) depends on the style guide or journal guidelines

The English language has a rich history of borrowing words from other languages, especially from Latin. Latin abbreviations such as ‘a.m.’, ‘p.m.’ and ‘CV’ have become part of our everyday vocabulary. Such abbreviations are also frequently used in academic writing, from the ‘Ph.D.’ in the affiliation section to the ‘i.e.’, ‘e.g.’, ‘et al.’, and ‘QED’ in the rest of the paper.

This guide explains when and how to correctly use ‘et al.’ in a research paper.

段落是论文的最基本组成部分,一篇论文可以说是由不同长短的段落组成的。

究竟何谓段落?

段落是一个包涵一连串与某一主旨相关的句子的写作单位,有助於组织论文架构。其实,段落结构就是整篇论文结构的浓缩版本,亦包括引言 (introduction)、内文 (body) 以及总结 (conclusion)。

你可以把段落结构想像成汉堡。

A. 主题句 (Topic sentence)

每一段的第一句主要是介绍该段落的主旨或概念,它可以告知读者该段落想要表达的是什麽。而且在大部分情况下,段落的首句都与前一段相呼应,从而起到承接上文的作用。

看一看以下的示範段落:

Unfortunately, significant problems and limitations exist in the current treatment of children with ADHD. Treatment with stimulants produces side effects, such as sleep problems and loss of appetite, and thus is not ideal or recommended for very young children (Corcoran, 2011; Faraone, Biederman, Morley, & Spencer, 2008). Although pharmacotherapy and behavioural management generally improve parent and teacher reports of children’s social skills, once treatments stop, so too do children’s improvements (MTA Cooperative Group, 2004). Moreover, when parents are stressed or dealing with their own mental health issues, they may not be able to properly implement the skills learned in behaviour training, resulting in more frustration and negative reinforcement of the parent–child conflict (Bögels, Hellemans, van Deursen, Römer, & van der Meulen, 2014). Therefore, it is imperative to investigate other psychosocial interventions that can improve the well-being of the entire family system.

上面段中红色的句子是主题句,并与前一段落中的资料有关联,主要引述专注力失调及过度活跃症的治疗方法,同时它亦介绍了这一段要讨论的主旨–那些治疗方法的局限。

撰写主题句的诀窍:

B. 后续句子 (Subsequent sentences)

后续句子相当於汉堡的馅料,其主要用处是继续铺陈主旨,以及提供额外资料去阐述、解释、辩护和分析论点。

回到之前的同一个示範段落

Unfortunately, significant problems and limitations exist in the current treatment of children with ADHD. Treatment with stimulants produces side effects, such as sleep problems and loss of appetite, and thus is not ideal or recommended for very young children (Corcoran, 2011; Faraone, Biederman, Morley, & Spencer, 2008). Although pharmacotherapy and behavioural management generally improve parent and teacher reports of children’s social skills, once treatments stop, so too do children’s improvements (MTA Cooperative Group, 2004). Moreover, when parents are stressed or dealing with their own mental health issues, they may not be able to properly implement the skills learned in behaviour training, resulting in more frustration and negative reinforcement of the parent–child conflict (Bögels, Hellemans, van Deursen, Römer, & van der Meulen, 2014). Therefore, it is imperative to investigate other psychosocial interventions that can improve the well-being of the entire family system.

这次红色的句子是后续句子,它们为主题句提出的段落主旨提供来自文献的支持證据。每一句后续句子都简单概括了为什麽在前一段提到的治疗方法不适当,从而建立起一个强而有力的论点。

关於制作你的「汉堡馅料」的小提示:

C. 结束句 (Final sentence)

结束句相当於汉堡底部的麵包,总结段落中的资料,有时间更会为后面的段落提供连接点。

再回到同一个示範段落:

Unfortunately, significant problems and limitations exist in the current treatment of children with ADHD. Treatment with stimulants produces side effects, such as sleep problems and loss of appetite, and thus is not ideal or recommended for very young children (Corcoran, 2011; Faraone, Biederman, Morley, & Spencer, 2008). Although pharmacotherapy and behavioural management generally improve parent and teacher reports of children’s social skills, once treatments stop, so too do children’s improvements (MTA Cooperative Group, 2004). Moreover, when parents are stressed or dealing with their own mental health issues, they may not be able to properly implement the skills learned in behaviour training, resulting in more frustration and negative reinforcement of the parent–child conflict (Bögels, Hellemans, van Deursen, Römer, & van der Meulen, 2014). Therefore, it is imperative to investigate other psychosocial interventions that can improve the well-being of the entire family system.

这一次,段尾的句子为在后面的段落将会提及关於是次研究的简介进行铺陈。

最后,在此分享几个有关写作段落要注意的地方和小提示:

1. 要多组合使用不同长短的句子。

2. 尽量避免用过长的句子,一般不超过35字。

3. 在同一句句子中,尽量只围绕一个或最多两个主题。

希望你现在能够多少掌握一些关於如何组织段落大纲的具体资讯。

QUICK ASIDE

Wondering why some abbreviations such as ‘et al.’ and ‘e.g.’ use periods, whereas others such as CV and AD don’t? Periods are typically used if the abbreviations include lowercase or mixed-case letters. They’re usually not used with abbreviations containing only uppercase letters.

Unusual Scenarios

Our latest online workshop built on the success of face-to-face workshops we developed specifically for local universities. Over 30 faculty members joined the session, presented by our Chief Operating Officer, Mr Nick Case, to learn from our case studies on editing research proposals.

The response to our workshop, which included a constructive and insightful Q&A session, was very positive.Drawing on our extensive experience working with hundreds of Hong Kong researchers targeting the GRF and ECS every year, we used examples of poor and subsequently improved proposals to show the attendees how they can make their applications stand out. The response to our workshop, which included a constructive and insightful Q&A session, was very positive.Drawing on our extensive experience working with hundreds of Hong Kong researchers targeting the GRF and ECS every year, we used examples of poor and subsequently improved proposals to show the attendees how they can make their applications stand out. The response to our workshop, which included a constructive and insightful Q&A session, was very positive.Drawing on our extensive experience working with hundreds of Hong Kong researchers targeting the GRF and ECS every year, we used examples of poor and subsequently improved proposals to show the attendees how they can make their applications stand out.

QUICK ASIDE

Wondering why some abbreviations such as ‘et al.’ and ‘e.g.’ use periods, whereas others such as CV and AD don’t? Periods are typically used if the abbreviations include lowercase or mixed-case letters. They’re usually not used with abbreviations containing only uppercase letters.

Author Resources

Check out AsiaEdit’s professional research grant proposal editing service.
Read more about our training services covering all aspects of academic writing tailored for local institutions.

More resources on research grant proposal writing: On-demand Webinars
Preparing an effective research proposal – Your guide to successful funding application
Preparing an effective research proposal – Your guide to successful funding application (Part 2)

作者背景

Dr Rachel Baron

联合总编及执行编辑 (社会科学)

Rachel于2001年刚在University of Exeter 取得博士学位的同时,以自由编辑的身份首次加入我们。在担任博士后研究人员数年之后,她专注于大学教授心理学,并于2010年回到AsiaEdit,并专注于学术编辑专业。她于2018年升任助理总编辑,并于2020年继而成为我们的联合主编。由于无法完全离开学术界,她还在意大利的一所英语大学教授心理学。

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